Friday, September 3, 2010

sejarah kemerdekaan merdeka, tunku abdul rahman
31-8-1957, Tunku Abdul Rahman announced independence of Malaya from British at the Stadium Merdeka

"Merdeka! Merdeka! Merdeka!"

To us, " Sejarah Kemerdekaan Malaysia" was the annual replay of Tunku Abdul Rahman's proclamation of " Merdeka" on TV.

We was not conceived when Malaya became an independent nation on 31 August 1957 and subsequently Malaysia on 16 September, 1963. So it is a remote past that we cannot relate to but obliged to study as a history subject in school...(yawn)

sejarah kemerdekaan merdeka, tunku abdul rahman
31-8-1957, Tunku Abdul Rahman announced independence of Malaya from British at the Stadium Merdeka


It is such press reports that arouse my curiosity to look at the overall story of sejarah kemerdekaan Malaysia when politicians debate that individuals branded as leftists also contributed to Malaysia's independence

The Early Voices in Sejarah Kemerdekaan Malaysia

So I read several references and trace the seeds of independence back in 1906 to moslem reformists, wishing to end colonial rule to establish an Islamic state, began publishing magazines and newspapers to promote their cause. They also formed political parties such as:

1. The first Malay political party, Kesatuan Melayu Muda in 1937 led by Ibrahim Haji Yaakob. Japanese occupation ended it.

2.Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya after the war in 1945 backed by the Malayan Communist Party with Mokhtaruddin Lasso, Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmi( who later also led PAS, the Islamic Party of Malaysia in 1956 ) and Ahmad Boestamam as key figures. The British banned it 5 months later.

3.Hizbul Muslimin led by Uztaz Abdul Bakar al-Baqir in 1948, was a faction of PKMM above. The British banned it in the same year.

These folks are pioneers of kemerdekaan in terms of time chronology but their political parties did not last long. Now, how about their associate the...

COMMUNISTS? - A Chapter of Bloodshed in Sejarah Kemerdekaan Malaysia
Their political ideology is the opposite of the capitalist British. However, they were useful allies during Japanese occupation, forming the most effective resistance force against the Japanese in Asia. The British supplied them arms and training and legalised their political party, Malayan Communist Party after the war.

The communists, mostly Chinese, also wanted independence for favour of a communist state, meaning equal rights for all races ( naturally ). So it was no surprise things turned sour when the Federation of Malaya established in 1948, which guarantees the special rights of Malays turned the communists to 12 years violent opposition, causing death of thousands. No wonder the government called them " pengganas komunis"!

Even after communist threat was declared over in 1960, it was only until 1989 they signed a peace treaty with the governments of Malaysia and Thailand to end their war of 'independence'.


The moslem reformists disagreed with the British policies and having communist ties certainly did not endear themselves to the British.

Then entered Cambridge educated anglophile Tunku Abdul Rahman into a political arena at a time when the British were seeking to hand over Malaya into hands of prospective leaders who would continue to be on friendly terms with them. Aha!

Apart from winning landslide victories in polling booths, Tunku Abdul Rahman with his Chinese and Indian political allies managed to reach a settlement on issues pertaining to economy, education and citizenship while the Malays retain their special rights to rule Malaya.

That paved way for Malaya ( West Malaysia today ) to become independent on 31 August 1957 amidst communist threat.

Birth of a New Nation
In 1961 Tunku proposed the formation of Malaysia with British colonies Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei. Initially all the four colonies agreed to join the federation. Brunei then pulled out due to an armed revolt staged to oppose its entry to Malaysia. Singapore was part of the newly formed Malaysia in 1963 but withdrew in 1965.

So this is briefly, sejarah kemerdekaan Malaysia and the rise of Bahasa Melayu as its national language which becomes Bahasa Malaysia as introduced by the National Language Act 1967 and reverted to Bahasa Melayu since 1990's. ( If that gives you a little headache, let me apologize...for the Merdeka spirit )

The Big Picture of Sejarah Kemerdekaan Malaysia

In the first place, why did Malaysia need kemerdekaan? I think it's time to look at Malaysia in the big picture of world history. I find this excerpt from The Columbia History of the World on the influence of Western civilization on the world most enlightening:

" After Columbus and Cortes had awakened the people of Western Europe to the possibilities, their appetite for converts, profits, and fame was thoroughly aroused and Western civilization was introduced, mainly by force, over nearly all the globe. Equipped with an unappeasable urge to expand and with superior weapons, conquerors made the rest of the world into an unwilling appendage of the Great European powers...The peoples of these continents [ Africa, Asia, and the Americas] were, in short, the victims of a ruthless, unrelenting exploitation."

Malaysia Hotels
The Lesson

Says Malay proverb:" Kalau baik buat teladan, kalau tak baik buat sempadan." In the context of history: Make the good portions your role model and if not good, discard them ( to make barriers ).

I like to compare notes on sejarah kemerdekaan Malaysia, it is a pleasure to find another Malaysian website with an article that mentions a bit on Sejarah Kemerdekaan Malaysia from a different angle- beginning with the assasination of J.W.W.Birch. The website is in English, so I translate the excerpt in Bahasa Malaysia.


Pemerintahan British tidak diterima dengan sepenuhnya oleh orang Melayu. Residen pertama, J.W.W.Birch dibunuh semasa menjalankan tugasnya menguatkuasakan pentadbiran British di Perak. * Inilah permulaan perjuangan ke arah kemerdekaan yang akan dicapai pada tahun 1963.

Penyusunan Semula Selepas Peperangan
Pada 1946, seluruh Malaya ( kecuali Singapura yang menjadi jajahan British yang berasingan ) digabungkan menjadi jajahan British yang digelar Malayan Union. Oleh sebab tentangan hebat daripada orang Melayu, Malayan Union menjadi kegagalan politik, dan selepas dua tahun diganti dengan Persekutuan Malaya yang longgar perikatannya pada tahun 1948.

Pada tahun 1948, komunis tempatan daripada Parti Komunis Malaya, hampir kesemuanya orang Cina, melancarkan pemberontakan, ini menyebabkan pengenaan darurat di Malaya ( darurat ini dimansuhkan pada tahun 1960 ). Kumpulan pejuang gerila tinggal di pangkalan sepanjang sempadan berceranggah selatan Negara Thai, kadang kala memasuki utara Malaysia. Pejuang-pejuang gerila ini akhirnya menandatangani satu perjanjian pendamaian dengan kerajaan Malaysia pada Disember, 1989.

Sentimen popular kemerdekaan menjadi berkobar-kobar semasa dan selepas peperangan dan Persekutuan Malaya merundingkan kemerdekaan daripada United Kingdom di bawah pimpinan Tunku Abdul Rahman, yang menjadi Perdana Menteri pertama. Oleh sebab ini merupakan sebahagian daripada strategi anti-komunis dengan "mengambil hati", maka pihak British bersetuju memberikan kemerdekaan kepada Malaya pada 31 Ogos, 1957. Malaysia tetap sebagai ahli Negara-negara Komanwel dan menjadi tuan rumah kepada sebilangan besar tentara British dan Komanwel sehingga perunduran kuasa British dari timur Suez pada lewat 1960-an.

Malaysia Kini

Persekutuan Malaya yang merdeka bergabung dengan jajahan British di Singapura, Sarawak dan Borneo utara ( dinamakan semula sebagai Sabah ) untuk membentuk Malaysia pada 16 September, 1963.
Pembentukan negara menimbulkan kontroversi yang hangat, kedua-dua negara Filipina dan Indonesia membuat tuntutan terhadap bahagian di Malaysia timur. Pemberontakan dalaman yang menyokong tuntutan tersebut ataupun kemerdekaan untuk daerah tertentu telah ditumpaskan oleh angkatan bersenjata Komanwel dan diikuti oleh tiga tahun keadaan separuh peperangan yang digelar Konfrontasi Indonesia di sempadan Indonesia. Sebagai konsesi terhadap pembantahan yang meluas, Brunei tidak dilibatkan dalam Persekutuan Malaysia, tetapi tetap di bawah perlindungan tentera British. Amerika Syarikat dengan tegasnya berjanji menyokong pembentukan Malaysia selepas satu perjanjian diplomatik rahsia dengan United Kingdom sebagai balasan sokongan British di Vietnam.

Footnote on Sejarah Kemerdekaan Malaysia

* There are two versions on the assasination of Birch:

1. The Malays confronted Birch at the river mouth of Pasir Salak, attacked him with a spear and threw him into the river. An ally of Dato Maharajalela, Sipuntum subsequently put him to death.

2.Siputum sneaked into the water underneath a bathing platform to end Birch’s life with a spear, while Birch was bathing.

# A political veteren from Perak in his memoirs relates the details leading to the assasination of Birch and the manner in which one of perpetrators was executed. The title of the book is " Malay Nationalism Before Umno -The Memoirs of Mustapha Hussein ". It is sejarah kemerdekaan Malaysia with a personal voice.



1 September 1957: Pemandangan suasana keindahan upacara perarakan menyambut kemerdekaan Malaya dan majlis penghormatan Yang di-Pertuan Agong, di depan bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad, Kuala Lumpur. Untuk tempoh dua jam, 2,000 anggota tentera Persekutuan Komanwel terdiri daripada lelaki dan wanita serta pertubuhan awam berarak melepasi bangunan sekretariat dan menyembah Yang di-Pertuan Agong. Baginda kemudian memeriksa perbarisan itu.
9 Julai 1958: Masjid Jamek adalah antara masjid tertua di Kuala Lumpur. Ia adalah hasil seni bina Arthur Benison Hubback dan dibangunkan di pertemuan Sungai Gombak dan Sungai Kelang. Ia dirasmikan pada 1909 oleh Sultan Selangor.

31 Ogos 1957: Ketika bendera Malaya berkibar, kumpulan koir menyanyikan lagu kebangsaan manakala penari dan penonton berdiri tegak. Ia adalah hari bersejarah untuk semua yang turut berhimpun di Stadium Merdeka bagi meraikan kemerdekaan yang baru diperoleh daripada pemerintah British.
31 Ogos 1957: Lahirnya sebuah negara baru, merdeka dan berdaulat yang dikenali Persekutuan Malaya.
Ogos 1962: Senyum kegembiraan, Tunku berjalan disambut kaum ibu ahli UMNO di lapangan terbang selepas pulang daripada perbincangan dengan Britain berhubung formasi Malaysia.
19 Ogos 1954: Sekumpulan pelajar dari Victoria Institution, Kuala Lumpur, berbasikal pulang ke rumah selepas sekolah. Victoria Institution dinamakan selepas Ratu Victoria yang ditubuhkan 14 Ogos 1893 dan secara rasmi dibuka 15 Januari 1894 yang hanya mempunyai 86 pelajar dan tiga tenaga pengajar.
Januari 1947: Arkitek Britain, A C Norman, menghasilkan rekaan bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad di Kuala Lumpur pada 1894 dan ia siap dibina pada 1897. Ia juga dikenali sebagai Sekretariat Negara dan selepas itu ditukar kepada pemerintah Selangor, Sultan Abdul Samad, yang menerima perlindungan British pada 1874. Ketika tempoh pembinaannya, bangunan batu yang dibangunkan mengikut reka bentuk Moor dianggap “melangkaui masa”. Beberapa gerbang dibina di tengah-tengah menara jam setinggi 41 meter, ditambah dengan kubah tembaga.
16 September 1963: 190 pelajar Sekolah Menengah Perempuan Cina Perak mempersembahkan tarian Viennese Waltz pada Sambutan Hari Malaysia di Padang Ipoh, Perak.